This is a reprint of the English Translation of the Nyaya Sutras of Gautama by Mm . Dr. Ganganatha Jha, the versatile Sanskrit scholar who will ever be. Where There’s Smoke There’s Fire: Gautama’s Nyāya-Sūtra. Posted on 10 December The Nyāya-Sūtra inaugurates a tradition of logical and. Nyaya: Gautama’s Nyaya-sutra, with Vatsyayana’s commentary (Indian philosophy in its sources) [Gautama (Authority on Nyayasastra)] on *FREE*.
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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Means of knowledge jpiw examined I55 Balancing the non-difference trWufir Occasions for rebuke finfwnr Logic is designated in Sanskrit not only by the word “Nyaya” but also by various other words which indicate diverse aspects of the science.
C, as is evident from the following: Rajondra Lai Mifcra’a nyzya. In the Rigveda-saihhita as well as the Sathapatha-Brahmana of the.
II Udyotakara’s Nyiiyavartika, opening lines. In the Sarvadarsanasamgraha Nyfiya philosophy is called the Aksapdda system. J Kalidasa’s Raghuvamsaui Rigveda-samhita, Mandala 1, Sfikta 01, Mantra Rigveda-samhita, Mandala 1, Sflkta 77, Mantra sura.
The water gushing out copiously from the well not only quenched his thirst but formed itself into a river, the source of which was the seat of the original well.
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The Variisa- Brfihmana of the Samaveda mentions four members of the Gotama famiJyt among the teachers who transmitted that Wutra to posterity, viz t the Radii a-Gautama, Gaff-Gautama, Sumanta-bfibhrava- Gautama and Saihkara- Gautama ; and the Chtlndogya Upanigad of the same Veda mentions another teacher named Harklnimata-Gautamat who was approached by Satya-Kaina Javfila to be his teacher.
Chandogya Upanisad, Adhyaya 4, Khanria 4. It is well-known how ofAhalya. The text of the Gautama Dharma-sOtra has been printed soveral tiinos in India while an English translation of it by Dr. This Aksapada mentioned along with KanSda is evidently no other person than Gotaina or Gautama who founded the Ny ay a philosophy.
As to the origin of the suyra Aksapada ” having eyes in the feet” as applied to Gautama, ynaya has it that Gautama was so deeply absorbed in philosophical contemplation that one day during his walks be fell unwittingly into a well out of sitra he was rescued with great difficulty.
God therefore mercifully provided him with a second pair of eyes in his feet to protect the sage from further mishaps. It is situated 28 miles north-east of. Two miles to the east of the village there is another village named Alfalya- sthana where between a pair of trees lies a slab of stone identified with Ahalya in her accursed state.
Tn its vicinity there is a temple which commemorates zutra emancipation of Ahalya by Rama Chandra. There is another tradition prevalent in the town of Chapra that Gautama, husband of Ahalya and founder of the Nyaya philosophy, resided in a village now called Godna at the confluence of the rivers Ganges and -Sarayfi where a Sanskrit academy gautzma Gautama Thomson Pathasala has been established to commemorate the great sage.
It seems to me that Goutama, naya of Rahugana, as mentioned in the Rigveda, was the founder of the Gautama family from The founder of which sprang Gautama, suhra of Ahalya, as narrated Sett? The other Gautamas mentioned in the Bnihmanas, Upanisads etc. To reconcile these conflicting statements it has been suggested that Aksapada otherwise known as Gotama or Gautama was the founder of the Nyaya philosophy, that he was born at Gautama-sthana in Mithila on the river Ksirodadhi, lived for some years at the village nyaaya called GodnS at the confluence of the Ganges and Saraytt until his retirement into Prabhasa the well-known sacred place of pilgrimage in Kathiawar on the sea-coast.
Prabhfisa was situated beyond the rock of Girnar in Kathiawar where we come serosa til the edicts of As’oka as well as an inscription of Iiudradfima supposed to be the first inscription in Sanskrit dated about A. There are also some inscriptions in Gupta characters, and there is no doubt that Prabhfisa situated on the Saras vati acquired celebrity in very oJd times. This Prabhfisa is not to be confounded with another town called Prabhfisa in KaU- sfimbi near Allahabad on the Jumna where there is an inscription, dated about the 2nd century B.
Fuhrer’a Pabhosa inscriptions in Epigraphia lndica, Vol. It does not conflict with the view that Aksapada is identical with Gautama author of the Gautama Dharma-Sutra which is ” declared to be the oldest of the existing works on the sacred lawj, 1 ‘ Aksapada-Gautama, founder of the Nyaya Philosophy, was almost a contemporary of Buddha-Gautama who founded Buddhism and Indra- bhfiti Gautama who was a disciple of Alalia vira the reputed founder of Jainism.
The Nyaya-Sutras Of Gautama: With The Bhasya Of Vatsyayana And The Vartika Of Uddyotakara
In it we read: C, mentions ” pa ififia ” in Sanskrit: Though Moggaliputta Tissa has not made any actual reference to Logic or Nyaya, his mention of some of its technical terms warrants us to suppose that, that philosophy existed in some shape in India in his time about B.
Sanskrit, literature in the Siltra or aphoristic style was presumably inaugurated at about. The ” Sutta” or Sutra section of the Pali literature reads very much ntaya a body of sermons bearing no affinity with the Sutra works of the Brahmanas. The Nyaya-Sutra is gauutama into five books, each containing two mu. It is The gradual develop. We do not know whether the whole of the Nyaya-Sutra, as it exists at present, gsutama the work of Aksapada, nor do we know for certain whether his teachings were committed to writing by himself or transmit- ted by oral tradition only.
Asurfiyana and Yfiska who followed Asuri were the teachers of Jatukarnya, a contemporary of Ak? Kapila therefore proceeded Aksapada by at least three generations. KapihVs Philosophy is believed to have come down by oral traditions and was not perhaps committed to writiug in his life-time.
Hence the NyAya-Sutra has been stated tc be the first work of the Sutra period. A few of the commentaries are mentioned below: Nyfiya-fcutra by Gotama or Aksapada B. Vatsyfiyana A D. Nyaya-Vfirtika tatparya-tika by Vficaspati Altera. Nyaya- Vrtti by Visvanfitba, NySyaprakasa by Kesava Misra. Nyaya Sutra Vyakhya by Mathurfinatha. Ksatriyas members of the military caste who carried it to great perfection.
Chandogya M ;24 ;9 ;, and These four pregnant expressions MahAvakya originated from the Brahmanas, whence it ‘may be concluded Nirguna-Brahma-Vidya or knowledge of absolute Brahma was confined among them. Kapila is reputed to be the first. Brahmana who propounded a sytem of philosophy called Samkhya, but his work on the subject not having come down to us in its original form we are not in a position to ascertain what relation it bore to the Vedas or what kind of reception was given toil by the orthodox Brahmanas.
We know for certain that the most powerful Brahman a who gautaama to study and teach philosophy openly was Gotama, Gautama or Aksapada the renowned author of the NyAya-Sutra. At this stage the Nyaya was pure Logic unconnected with the scriptural dogmas. Aksapada recognised four means of valid knowledge, viz. Mann, atlhyjiya 2, verso VyasaJ does not care even to review the NyAya system in the firahma-siltra seeing that it has not been recognised by any worthy sage.
Manu says that dharma or duty is to be ascertained by logical reasoning not opposed to the injunctions of the Vedas. He recommends Logic Nyfiya as a necessary study for a King and a logician to be an indispensable member of a legal assembly. Gautamadharma-stitra, adhyaya 11Maim, adhydya 12, verse Manu, adhyaya 7, verse Gatama, adhyaya 12, verso Mahabharata, Adiparva, adhyaya In fact the Nynya Logic was in course of time deservedly held in very high esteem.
If it were allowed to The course of Nyay a. Never- theless the principles of Nyiiya entering into the different systems of philosophy gave them each its proper compactness and cogency just as Bacon’s Inductive Method shaped the sciences and philosophies of a later age in a different country. Rhetoric alafikaraVedanta, etc. Supreme felicity is suttra by the knowledge about the true nature of sixteen categories, viz. Knowledge about, the true, nature of sixteen ‘categories’]’ means true knowledge of the ” enunciation,” ” definition ” and ” critical examination ” of the categories.
Book I of the NyAya-Satra treats of “enunciation” aud ” definition,” while the remaining four Books sutrz reserved for ” critical examination. Pain, birth, activity, faults and misapprehension — on the successive annihilation of these in the reverse order, there follows release. Misapprehension, faults, activity, birth and pain, these in their uninterrupted course constitute the “world.
A person, by the true knowledge of the sixteen categories, is able to remove his misapprehensions. When this is done, his faults, viz. This is the way in which his release is effected and supreme felicity secured. Perception, inference, comparison and word ver- bal testimony — these are the means of rijjjlit gautaja.
The Prabhakrras admit a fifth means of right knowledge called presumption artlmpatti byaya, the Bhattas and Vcdfintins admit a sixth, viz.
Nyāya Sūtras – Wikipedia
Perception is that knowledge which arises from the contact of a sense with its object and which is deter- minate, unnameable and non-erratic. The know- ledge of water derived in this way is not perception.
To eliminate such cases the epithet non-erratic has been used. Inference is knowledge which is preceded by per- ception, and is of three kinds, viz. A posteriori is the knowledge of cause derived from the perception of its effect, e.
VatsyAyana takes the last to be “not commonly seen 1 ‘ which he interprets as the knowledge of a thing which is not commonly seen, e. Comparison is the knowledge of a thing through its similarity to another thing previously well known. A man hearing from a forester that a bos gavaeus is like a cow resorts to a forest whtre he sees an animal like a cow.
Having recollected what lie heard he institutes a comparison, by which he arrives at the con- viction that the animal which he sees is bos gavaeus. This is knowledge derived through comparison. Sonic hold that comparison is not a separate means of knowledge, for when one notices the likeness of a cow in a strange animal one really performs an act of perception.
In reply it is urged that we cannot deny comparison as a separate means of knowledge, for how does otherwise the name bos gavaeus signify the general notion of the animal called bos gavaeus.
Tliat ho name bos gavaeus signifies one and all members of the bos gavaeus class is not a result of perception but the consequence of a distinct knowledge called comparison. Word verbal testimony is the instructive asser- tion of a reliable person. A reliable person is one — may be a risi, Arya or mleccha, who as an expert in a certain matter is willing to communicate his experiences of it. It is of two kinds, viz. The first kind involves matter which can be actually verified.