Etlingera elatior, commonly known as torch ginger, is a tropical rhizomatous perennial of the ginger family that grows to ‘ tall in tropical climates but much. Read fascinating facts and browse beautiful, detailed photos of the torch ginger ( Etlingera elatior): one of thousands of plant species growing at the Eden Project. Etlingera elatior or ‘pink torch ginger’ (Zingiberaceae) are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring.
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Etlingera elatior or ‘pink torch ginger ‘ Zingiberaceae are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior against lead – induced changes in serum free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate etlingeea drinking water ppm for 14 days alone or etlinbera the ethanol extract of E. Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated.
Lead acetate in drinking water elicited a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides LPO and protein-carbonyl-contents PCC. There was a significant decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels with lead acetate treatment. The results suggest that flower extract of Etlingera elatior has powerful antioxidant effect against lead – etlintera oxidative stress and the extract may be useful therapeutic agent against lead toxicity.
However, detailed evaluations are required to identify the active antioxidant compounds from this etlingerx extract. Lead Pb is a toxic metal that induces a wide range of behavioral, biochemical and physiological effects in humans. Even though blood lead levels continue to eltaior over the past two decades, etlingear populations like infants, young children and working class are still at a higher risk [ 12 ].
As lead exposure tends to be sub acute, produces only subtle clinical symptoms. Chronic exposure elaitor are more common than etlinera toxicity. Lead via gastro intestinal elattior is first taken up by the red blood cells and is distributed to all vascular organs [ 3 ].
Pathogenesis of lead poisoning is mainly attributed to lead- induced oxidative stress. Lead is reported to cause oxidative stress by generating the release of reactive oxygen species ROS such as superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals and lipid peroxides [ 6 – 8 ]. As oxidative stress has been mainly implicated in the lead toxicity, etlnigera the possibility of lead acetate interacting with cellular metabolism biomolecules and decreasing the reactive oxygen species generation by the use of antioxidant nutrients has received considerable attention in the recent past [ 4910 ].
There has etlignera increased interest among phytotherapy researchers to use medicinal plants with antioxidant activity for protection against heavy metal toxicity [ 68 ]. Etlingera elatioralso known as ‘torch ginger’ or ‘red ginger lily’ belongs to zingiberaceae family and is a herbaceous perennial plant native to South East Asia.
It is known as bunga kecombrang or honje in Indonesia and as bunga kantan in Malaysia. More than 15 species of Etlingera plants have been recorded in Peninsular Malaysia [ 1112 ].
The young shoots and flower buds of the plants are consumed raw by indigenous communities in Malaysia and Thailand. The flowers and flower buds are commonly used in Malaysian dishes such as, Penang laksanasi kerabu and nasi ulam [ 1113 – 15 ]. Decoction prepared from the fruit of E. The young flower shoot of E. Literature is scanty eelatior the phytochemical studies conducted on the inflorescence of E. Most of the previous studies on the antioxidant activities of E.
There are no reports available on the antioxidant activities of inflorescence of E. Hence the present study was taken up to assess the effects of ethanol extract of E. The inflorescence of the Etlingera elatior plant was used in this research because it is eaten by the local population. The voucher specimen was deposited in the research laboratory at International Medical University voucher specimen: Inflorescence of Etlingera elatior washed in running tap water three times and cut into 3 cm pieces and again washed and soaked in running tap water for five minutes then air dried.
The extract was filtered, evaporated in vacuum evaporator and lypholized etlinfera give yield of about 60 g of dry extract.
Torch ginger, Etlingera elatior, plant facts – Eden Project
The slatior was reconstituted with distilled water to give desired concentrations used in this study. The Etlingera elatior inflorescence extract was tested for the presence of various phytochemical classes of compounds such as alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins using standard procedures of analysis [ 1920 ].
The mixture was heated for 20 minutes, cooled and filtered. To 3 cm 3 of each extract was added 1 cm 3 NaOH and observed for yellow colouration.
The mixture was heated etlingers a boiling water-bath for 15 minutes. The rats had access to an animal diet and tap water ad libitum. The rats were placed in polypropylene cages with three animals per cage and were allowed to acclimatize for one week prior to treatment.
All the experimental protocols conducted on rats were performed in accordance with the internationally accepted principles for laboratory animal use and care and Institutional animal care and etlingfra committee and the study got approval from the Research and Ethics committee. Etligera were divided randomly into the following groups with eight animals in each group. Rats exposed to lead acetate and treated with E. Groups 6 – 8: At the end of experimental period, rats were anaesthetized with diethyl ether and blood was collected by cardiac puncture.
Furthermore, blood lead levels were assayed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Using the total antioxidant assay kit, aqueous and lipid soluble antioxidants were not separated and thus combined antioxidant activities of all its constituents were assessed. The amount of ABTS produced was monitored by reading the absorbance at nm.
A quantitative extraction method as provided in the kit method for lipid hydroperoxide assay was used to extract lipid hydroperoxides into chloroform and the extract was directly used. This procedure eliminates any interference caused by hydrogen peroxide or endogenous ferric ions in the sample and provides a sensitive and reliable assay for lipid peroxidation.
The absorbance was read at nm using a 96 well plate spectrophotometric reader and a dose response curve of the absorbance unit vs. In the protein carbonyl content assay kit, protein samples are derivatized by making use of the reaction between 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine DNPH and protein carbonyls. Formation of a Schiff base produces the corresponding hydrazone which was analyzed spectrophotometrically at – nm.
This assay kit utilizes a tetrazolium salt for the detection of superoxide radicals O 2 – generated by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. Oxidation rate of tetrazolium salt to formazan dye by O 2 – is inversely proportional to the endogenous activity of SOD. The formazan dye stains the wells and its staining intensity was detected by absorbance etoingera at nm using a plate reader. This assay kit measured GPx activity indirectly by a coupled reaction with glutathione reductase.
Oxidized glutathione, produced upon reduction of an organic hydroperoxide by GPx, is recycled to its reduced state by glutathione reductase and NADPH. The rate of decrease in the absorbance at was directly proportional to the GPx activity in the sample.
The conjugation is accompanied by an increase in absorbance at nm. The rate of increase is directly proportional to the GST activity in the sample. Statistical analysis was done by Graph Pad Prism 5.
Statistical differences among various groups and the significance were calculated by non-parametric Kruskal Wallis and Mann- Whitney’s U-Tests. P value less than 0.
The analysis of phytochemicals in the ethanolic extract of inflorescence of E. There was a etlintera increase in lead level in the serum of rats in the lead acetate alone-treated group. Whereas, no significant differences were found between the groups, that received the combined treatment or lead acetate and the extract at 50 and mg. This improvement was more pronounced in the group etlinngera lead acetate and treated with the highest dose of E.
Animals treated with E.
The level of PCC decreased significantly when E. Moreover, the decrease in PCC was pronounced in the group treated with E. Though elatlor level of PCC was significantly reduced with concurrent E. It is of interest to mention that all groups treated with E.
Furthermore, the increase in SOD in E. Animals received the extract at the three tested doses showed a significant increase compared to the control group. Lead is etlingeda to cause oxidative damage in various tissues by bringing about imbalance in the generation and removal of reactive oxygen species [ 21 – 23 ].
Although the exact mechanisms elaitor which lead induces oxidative stress in various tissues are not completely understood, evidence indicates that multiple mechanisms may be involved. Numerous plant products have been shown to have high potent antioxidant activity. Recently, bioflavonoids and polyphenols of plant origin have been used extensively for free radical scavenging and to inhibit lipid peroxidation [ 8 ettlingera, 24 ].
The present study showed that lead acetate exposure in drinking water for 14 days resulted in severe oxidative stress. The selective dose etlinfera lead acetate used in the current study was based on previous literature [ 2425 ].
There was increase in serum lipid hydroperoxide and protein carbonyl content and decrease in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels. These observations confirm the findings of several studies, which reported alterations in antioxidant enzyme activities in lead exposed animals [ 6926 – 28 ] and workers [ 2930 ] and suggest a possible involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of lead toxicity.
But it is not clear whether the changes in serum antioxidant enzymes are the cause of oxidative damage or a consequence of it. There was a significant increase in serum lipid hydroperoxides and protein carbonyl contents after lead acetate exposure.
Lead is known to produce oxidative damage in various organs by increasing lipid peroxidation [ 3132 ]. Lipid peroxidation will inactivate cell constituents by oxidation and ultimately lead to loss of membrane integrity [ 633 ].
The observed increased lipid hydroperoxides in the current study in lead-treated group may be due to the formation of free radicals or through exhaustion of antioxidants, leading to elatiod stress.
Intense lipid peroxidation caused by lead exposure may affect the mitochondrial and cytoplasmic membrane causing more severe oxidative damage in the tissues and consequently releasing lipid hydroperoxides into circulation [ 3435 ].
Protein modifications elicited by direct oxidative attack lead to the formation of protein carbonyl derivatives and protein carbonyl content PCC is the most commonly used biomarker for protein oxidation [ 36 – 38 ]. The observed increase in protein carbonyl content in lead exposed rats confirms the oxidative stress induced by lead acetate in different tissues.
Treatment with lead acetate significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S- transferase and total antioxidants level.
These results are in agreement with previous reports [ 242539 ].
How to Grow Etlingera Elatior: 10 Steps (with Pictures) – wikiHow
Lead acetate is known to cause free radical damage in tissues by two mechanisms: Increased generation of ROS, including hydroperoxides, singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxides, and by causing direct depletion of antioxidant reserves [ 2240 ]. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase enzymes take part in maintaining glutathione homeostasis in the tissues. These antioxidant enzymes are involved in the defense system against free radical mediated tissue or cellular damage after lead exposure [ 244142 ].
The observed decrease in circulating antioxidants and decrease in serum total antioxidants confirm the lead acetate – induced depletion of antioxidants depletion. In the present study, administration of ethanol extract of Etlingera elatior alone significantly increased the serum antioxidant enzymes. This might have elevated blood lead levels in lead acetate ingested rats.