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Reviewers are chosen from among selected panicow experts. Filema Edizioni, Lit Edizioni s. Empowerment of Women – Environment Research. It is viehos edited under the auspices of: Lilliana Comes, Le fate violate. Norms, control and sexuality 46 -Maria Rosaria Pelizzari 66 A big bad wolf in sheep s clothing. Case studies of accounts of sexual abuse from trials taking place during the early s V. Mosso, Massimo Bellotto We are diverse but belonging to the same team: In all societies, although pierz a different degree, women are subjected to physical, sexual and psychological abuse that cuts across lines of income, class and culture.
Many studies illustrate how low social and economic status can be both a cause and a consequence of this violence. This condition is the result of the historically unequal power relationship between women and men, which is perpetuated by traditional and customary practices that do not recognize the right of self determination of women.
Claudio Claudiano, Poemas 2 – Free Download PDF
Any kind of violence against women is a clear expression of male dominance and both a cause and consequence of women s serious disadvantage and imbalanced position compared to men. In many regions of the world, women are still expected to endure being subjugated by men, since the strength and weight of traditions is such that many women even find it justifiable to be dominated.
The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women defines violence against women as “any eos of gender-based violence that pjera in, or is likely to doz in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life” 1. The core document of the Fourth World Conference on Women of Beijing FWCWBnamed Platform for Action Governments, declared that violence against women constitutes a violation of basic human rights and that it is an obstacle to vifjos achievement of the objectives of equality, development and peace.
Since FWCWB, there has been a general worldwide concern about violence against women and domestic violence in particular. In spite of that, the problem continues to grow. This means that it is necessary to further develop an analysis of the factors that maintain such a tragic situation.
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Furthermore, in the whole world, women are forced to bear various kinds of sexual acts and humiliating sexual activities, verbal harassment, viejox, acts of exhibitionism, persecution and homicide.
This is partly due to the fact that men occupy and exploit positions of trust and intimacy, as husbands, boyfriends, fathers, fathers-in-law, stepfathers, brothers, uncles, sons, or other relatives, that permits them to exercise all forms of cruelties, expressed through emotional, psychological, verbal, social, economic, spiritual, physical and sexual forms of abuse.
In most cases, the violent behavior is part of a paniicos range of means to exercise their power over women, which can be both criminal and non-criminal and almost always invisible, especially when it takes place in the home.
This is because in our common traditional culture we consider close relationships like a secret area where society cannot enter. Furthermore, in many societies, women are taught to accept, tolerate, and even rationally justify domestic violence and to remain silent about such incidents, so that this condition remains intact over time.
Indeed, intimate partner violence and cultural family relationships involve any form of abuse and control over females, including the psychological and physical dimensions. Not only has domestic violence been acknowledged as a violation of the basic human rights of women, but an increasing amount of research highlights the health burdens, intergenerational and demographic consequences of such violence. The Italian case as model to study in-depth Whether we consider domestic violence the ultimate expression of violence, and since in Italy the family dimension familism 2 is central to social life and parallel to the subordinate female condition, a specific analysis on the Italian condition may be useful, especially in order to consider it similar or prototypic to Latin cultures, like the Spanish, Portuguese, or Mediterranean ones.
In fact, during the 20 th session of the UN Human Rights Council, on 2 Familism is a concept indicating a form of social structure in which the needs of the family as a group are more important than the needs of any individual family member or of the society.
La frattura originaria, Liguori, Napoli. The question of the mafia-style sub-culture role in female subordination. Traditional culture, religion and gender role representation in both emigrated and non-emigrated Albanian women, World Cultural Psychiatry Research Review, 2, 1, pp IX.
In her report, Manjoo underlined that: In the latter part of her report, she expressed her concern that: The Special report concluded that, although the Italian legal framework largely provides for sufficient protection for violence against women, it is characterized by fragmentation, inadequate punishment of perpetrators and lack of effective redress for women victims of violence.
In this regard, she stressed that the weak political will and the lack of funds available for programs in the area of women s rights: Actually in Italy, the revolutionary theories of the Second and Third Feminist Waves are widely known, but discussed only in an academic gender studies setting, and this situation has not developed in parallel with women s ability to enjoy the benefits of change. Indeed, it seems that women are mostly entangled in regressive environments, which keep them in a state of backwardness compared to the rest of the Western world.
Feminist culture gives the impression of being unable to involve the masses of young women and of being intrinsically powerless to indicate solutions for the serious discrimination that women experience. Despite the great efforts of the Western world that are aimed at resolving this injustice, the gender gap in Italy has remained the same for decades 4 ; furthermore notwithstanding the considerable efforts made by European policies in order to reduce this gap, nothing seems to be able to reduce the persistent humiliation of women and their submission to traditional logic that keeps them strongly subordinate to men, making incompatible the dimensions de jure and de facto.
Although there 3 See: La situazione del Paese nel Roma: Since equal access to positions of higher status is an indicator of democracy and individual freedom, it is important to ask what factors contribute in determining the imbalance 6.
The mission of this volume As Michael Foucault discusses, the first effect of inhibition is learned helplessness that derives from being externally controlled.
The second effect is the predictable fall into victim relationships. Italy is in fact one of the countries where domestic violence and femicide are particularly large problems.
In Italy many new initiatives to combat these phenomena are being created. These initiatives are centered on the contention that Italy is a paradoxical Country where on the one hand different cultures are busy constructing a society able to mutually recognize diversity and on the other hand, in spite of the progress guaranteed to women such as equality with men, Italy remains a country that is substantially traditional.
In feminist terms, we can say that traditionalism means colonialism or phallogocentrism, This monographic number of Camera Blu discusses the ways in which the Italian paradox may be considered engendering a sensitive framework of meaning linking the background of many Latin and Mediterranean cultures that are still unable to leave behind the old inherited ways that hinder true social development and the right of everyone to be a free and selfdetermined person. To better illustrate the elements of an effective community response that is able to fight against gender violence, this volume examines what kinds of priorities must be considered in order to change the current situation and create comprehensive and individualized approaches for psychosocial intervention.
Indeed, the volume maps a discourse on violence against women considering substantially two kinds of themes: Essenzialismo tra psicologia sociale e studi di genere: Italian paradoxes around the differencePsicologia sociale 2, pp In this area of discussion, it is important to consider the work of Patrizia Romito, Caterina Arcidiacono and Alisa Del Re, whose work analyzes in a systematic way the phenomenon of violence, offering psychosocial and political alternatives to change the situation in Italy.
Our analysis of the Italian evidence, inherent to a number of difficulties not fully overcome in feminist history, is inevitably limited but at the same time strategic.
Indeed, we think that it is worthwhile to underline again various issues that democracy still has to insist on, with stronger determination both in Italy and in other Countries, which are in a similar condition.
With this virilio, we want to define what has happened in the last few decades in Italy: Almost every day a woman is murdered by her husband, boyfriend or exlover, because he can’t accept changes in the relationship, including changing roles in the couple. All this is happening at the same time as the field of Italian viehos gender studies has achieved increasing International success.
Recent issues in the political international agenda Abstract Issues regarding security, for a long time virvilio been proposed, both in the scientific literature, that in the writings of popular character, without taking into due consideration the specificity of the effects that certain threats can cause the different subjectivity or on specific groups rather than on other.
In particular, very rarely takes into account the fact that, in relation to the condition of women, we can talk, referring to certain areas or aspects of the problem, think of the problem of violence, of a real security crisis. The safety cultures sedimentation processes of socialization through everyday practices, can be considered an integral part of the internal structures of states.
Rarely did one consider that in the case of the status of women, it is possible to speak of a true security crisis in various areas or sectors of virtilio issue. Numerous sources, both inter- and non-governmental, denounce that fact. Taking on consistency in socialization processes through daily practices, the cultures of security may be considered an integral part of States internal structures.
Evoking the idea of a learned behaviour, the very concept of security culture, implies the way in which such ideas are selected over time, transmitted, re-proposed and modified in policy-making processes Rosa, Issues classified today, in the political debate, under the heading gender security have crucial political relevance for the development of public policies directed at the recognition, respect and effectiveness of human rights.
Indeed, they substantially enrich and innovate orientation and dks processes in the area of security. As it is well-known, in its first systematic discussion on security, UNPD did not dedicate any specific attention to women 1, but did define a series of security areas, such as the economic, food, health, environmental, personal, political and community spheres, as important in shaping a hypothetical security paradigm based on the centrality of panjcos person, rather than on the pre-eminent scope and importance of defending a country as a territorial entity: The Human Development Report defined human security as people’s safety from chronic threats and protection pirea sudden vjejos disruptions in the patterns of daily life.
Seven types of security were listed as components of human security: The concept of human security takes its shape from the human being: It s an idea of security deliberately protective.
Gender equality then helps to decrease and combat poverty among virfilio, create development processes sensitive to women s needs, favour peace, and foster respect for human rights.
In its original formulation, human security presents four main characteristics: In other words, the power of the human security concept is absolutely and clearly evident when it is contrasted with the traditional concept of national security.
In the human security approach, it is the welfare of human beings around the world that is the object of concern rather than the military and strategic interests of a particular state. The defence of human life puera more important than the defence of States, vidjos personal integrity is as important as territorial integrity.
Claudio Claudiano, Poemas 2
From a gender perspective, the policy areas involved in the concept of human security are particularly complex, given the specific nature of certain risks affecting the status of woman, and the total neglect of women s needs by the virgili model of security, still understood under the prism of political realism and panivos most relevant variant, neorealism.
This prevents the concept of gender security from fully realising its full potential, both on an analytical level and on the level of policy legacy, in relation to possible alternatives in terms of policy change based on the chance to break with institutionalized practices of the past. The issue of women s equality reflects this complexity, since the discrimination still affecting women makes them more vulnerable to living panidos incompatible with the very idea of human security.
Feminist movements have been unable to structure a discourse capable of including the gender dimension within the framework of the security analysis carried out under the realism paradigm.
However, with the s, and with clearer reflection on a more person-oriented security, it became easier to think about states of insecurity taking into account distinctions which traditional conceptual instruments had failed to reveal.
With the great number of humanitarian emergencies arising from the spread of ethnic, religious and national conflicts, and from the atrocities afflicting the civil populations and the numerous social tragedies threatening the capacity of millions of individuals to reproduce and sustain themselves, it has become clear that the respect of men and women s rights has to be crucial to the political agenda in the community of nations.
The s were fundamental both in the process of multiplication and progressive definition of rights, and in promoting and protecting human rights, particularly women s rights. One only need to recall the instruments adopted during that decade both binding and non-binding concerning violence against women.
They were adopted thanks to the role played by segments of the civil society through lobbying activities, especially in the context of international meetings: Numerous emergencies, however, have recently created the right conditions for developing greater awareness concerning the insecurity of women.
Such emergencies include the recent and on-going economic recession, even in European countries; changes affecting labour relations; female migration, in its different expressions; the trafficking of young women for sexual exploitation and the proliferation of sex business on an industrial scale; the spread of ethnic conflicts; ideological and religious fundamentalisms; the advent of violence as a social reality transversally added to all the other peculiarities that might characterise women.
Such situations of crisis during the last 20 years have brought about a radical change in the way of considering women s security: The human security debate has been steadily enriched in recent years by proposals made by women at the international level.
The possibility of creating a special dimension for gender security within the concept of human security has become more and more manifest. The search for a modern, shared concept of gender security focusing on the needs of women and with them those of the communities they belong to, has encouraged a wholly new kind of discussion regarding the presence of women within those intergovernmental organizations, particularly the United Nations, considered as the most relevant political space in which to develop new dimensions of governance, with a view to global reform.
The discussion has coincided with a progressive tendency of the bodies belonging to the United Nations human rights machinery towards a concept of gender aimed at fully encapsulating the principle of non-discrimination on the ground of sex and at delivering policies directed to mainstreaming and women empowerment. At the same time, the trans-national political the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic the topic 7.
Such participation presents an increasingly complex organizational dimension, and a growing pervasiveness at the practical level of political action.
The human security debate within the international community institutions In order to include gender issues in discussions concerning security, it is necessary to consider the categories defined by UNDP ininterpret them from the viewpoint of women, and expand them to embrace the human security dimensions which that first categorisation had not contemplated.
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On the strictly politico-institutional level, it is possible to date distinct stages in the evolving notion of human security and, in the overall prospect, recall the first moment when a security concept strictly tied to the political realism paradigm underwent pxnicos and redefinition.
In the early s, in virgiljo of the growing world interdependence, this document offered an analysis of the changes occurring on the international geopolitical scenario and proposed a series of initiatives aimed at resolving conflicts.
Also, it indicated guidelines sustaining the role of the United Nations in building and maintaining peace, in consonance with the principles set forth by the General Assembly that same year, focusing on relief activities in humanitarian emergencies 4.
Later, inthe Supplement to an Agenda for Peace re-proposed the same goals mentioned in ; it also examined both the issue of using sanctions in light of emergencies linked to ethnic and nationalistic conflicts, and the 3 Report commissioned by the Secretary General at the conclusion of the extraordinary meeting of the Security Council on 31 Januaryfollowing the Declaration adopted during that same summit meeting, Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to the statement adopted by the Summit Meeting of the Security Council on 31 JanuaryAn Agenda for Peace, Preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-keeping, UN doc.
During those same years, while the search continued for new political instruments for peace and international security, new interest arose for other dimensions of human insecurity.