CDMAOne covers larger areas and consumes less power than the other Figure describes the CDMAOne architecture, with its corresponding interfaces. IS (Interim Standard 95) CdmaOne Network Architecture. CDMA Packet Data. In this section we describe the core packet data architecture associated with the CDMA radio interface. This architecture is.
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In this section we describe the core packet data architecture associated with the CDMA radio interface. It allows CDMA cellular wireless service providers to offer bidirectional packet data services using the Internet Protocol.
To provide this functionality, CDMA utilizes two access methods: This address archihecture constant while the user maintains connection with the same IP network within a wireless carrier’s domain—that is, until the user does not exit the coverage area of the same Packet Data Serving Node PDSN. Anew IP address must, however, be obtained when the user moves into a geographical area attached to a different IP network—that is, into the coverage area of another PDSN.
Simple IP service does not include any tunneling scheme providing mobility on a network layer described in the beginning of this chapter and supports mobility only within certain geographical boundaries.
One of the significant advantages of Simple IP lies in the fact that unlike Mobile IP it does not require zrchitecture software of any kind to be installed in the mobile station. These higher-speed bursts are arcyitecture by the infrastructure based on user need data backlog in cdjaone directionand resource availability both airlink bandwidth and infrastructure elements. Bursts are typically allocated to a given mobile for a short duration of time of 1 to 2 seconds.
cdmaOne – Wikipedia
The resource and mobile situation is then reevaluated. Burst allocation is performed independently on the forward and reverse channels. The IP address of the mobile station is assigned from the address space of its Home network, either statically provisioned or dynamically allocated by the HA at the beginning of the session.
The authentication for this access method is based only on PDSN. The connection between the mobile station and its serving PDSN requires a second layer of connectivity to be established for successful IP communication. Stand-alone PCF implementation is also possible. Another important function of PCF is providing micro-mobility support, which is accomplished by allowing the MS to change the PCF while keeping the mobile anchored on the same PDSN atchitecture buffering the user data while a dormant radio cdmaome is being re-connected.
The significance of the latter feature is explained later in the chapter. The PDSN is also charged with authenticating the users and authorizing them for requested services. Finally the PDSN is responsible for establishing, maintaining, and terminating the PPP-based link layer connection to the mobile station.
In other words, if the user moves to another MSC coverage area, the user session is not disconnected and the user is not forced to reconnect via the new MSC and obtain a new IP address.
Not surprisingly, the carrier community was the most vocal during the R-P standardization process. The mobile device is expected to support airlink “dormancy” as defined by TIA [ISA1]which allows either the mobile or the MSC to time out the active airlink connection after a period of inactivity and to release the air interface and serving base station resources.
If either the mobile station or the associated PCF have packets to send while dormant, the connection is reactivated and the transmission continues. Dormant mobile stations are defined as stations that do not have an active link layer connection to the serving PCF. The PDSN serving the users on the foreign network serves as the default router for all registered mobile users, active and dormant, and maintains host routes to them.
If the mobile does not re-register before the expiry of the registration lifetime, the PDSN will close the link with the PCF for this mobile and terminate the mobile’s session and the HA will do likewise if the mobile has not re-registered via some other PDSN. To receive and send packets, dormant stations must therefore transition to the active state. Given that any registered mobile stations at any moment can be in active or dormant sub-states, the PDSN generally does not require an indication of the state of PPP links to mobile stations except for the current dormancy timer value for that particular link.
Traffic may arrive on the dormant link at any time, forcing the associated mobile station to transition to active state.
A separate tunnel exists for each unique HA for all registered users. There are two basic types of mobile station configurations—relay model and network model. In relay model mobile stations, the CDMA Mobile Terminal is connected to another portable data terminal device such as a laptop, handheld computing device, or some other embedded data terminal.
The relay model phone does not terminate any of the protocol layers except for the CDMA physical layer radio interface and RLP layers.
Network model mobile stations, in addition to the radio interface, terminate all necessary protocols and do not require any additional data terminal devices. The mobile phone itself provides all user input and display capabilities—as well as a user applications—to make use of the packet data network. Examples of this kind of phone include the “smart phone” or “micro-browser” phone. These devices normally include some embedded Web browsing or information service application, as well as a display screen for viewing the information retrieved from the Internet server.
Such kind of terminals may also offer the ability to connect a laptop to a data network via a PPP connection terminated at the terminal itself. In this configuration, the phone can support embedded applications such as a micro-browser and also allow general-purpose use by the external data endpoint. CDMA packet data architecture defines as many as three levels of mobility for the mobile station, as depicted in Figure 4.
In this case, two options described previously come into play: In active state, when the user crosses PCF boundary, the handoff is transparent for the mobile station. The MS participates in a semisoft handoff to the new BSC or MSC, depending on the vendorwhile the link layer data session remains anchored to the original PCF for the duration of the call and the mobile is in the active state.
IS, cdmaOne | Electronics Notes
In other words, when the mobile station is in the active state, change of serving PCF will not occur. This reregistration updates the mobility binding tables at the HA, so that all subsequent traffic is routed to the new PDSN for this mobile.
In this case the mobile’s PPP link is impacted by this change while the IP layer stays intact, and the mobility remains invisible to the mobile station’s correspondents. Note that the last type of handoff is not available in Simple IP mode; Simple IP provides only partial mobility, via the other two levels, to the mobile station.
One of the functions of the R-P interface is to bring Simple IP service closer in functionality archutecture Mobile IP service, along with addressing other problems. For example, cdmaon addresses the situations where the mobile station changes its point of attachment to the network so arfhitecture that basic Mobile IP tunnel establishment introduces significant network overhead in terms of the increased signaling messages.
Another often-cited problem is the latency of establishing each new tunnel, architecutre introduces delays or gaps during which user data is unavailable. CDMA, just like the majority of other cellular systems, supports the concept of home and visited networks.
CDMA2000 Packet Data
A CDMA subscriber has an account established with one wireless carrier, which provides the user with wireless voice and data services. Cvmaone same wireless carrier may provide a home network for the mobile subscriber.
The home network holds user profile and authentication information. When the user roams into the territory of a different wireless carrier—that is, a visited network—that carrier must obtain the authentication information and the service profile for this particular user from its home network.
The service profile indicates what radio resources the user is authorized to use, such archigecture a maximum bandwidth or access priority. Architectute procedures take place to authenticate the user access to data networks.
CDMA packet data architecture, depicted in Figure 4. Mobile stations requesting data service in CDMA systems will have to be authenticated twice: Physical layer or wireless access and user terminal equipment authentication is performed cdmxone the cellular wireless system’s HLR and VLR infrastructure. A challenge from the PDSN also allows for protection from replay-based attacks.
Note that data network AAA authenticates the user, as opposed to physical layer authentication, which only authenticates the mobile. Therefore, users wishing to gain access to public or private data networks are presented with a login and password sequence, familiar to wireline remote data access users, in addition to mobile device authentication taking place at registration stage, which results in the momentary hesitation at phone startup familiar to most mobile arcgitecture users.
Again, the MS must respond to the challenge with a signature and NAI that is verified by the home network, but this time the response is sent along with the Mobile IP registration request rather than during PPP session establishment. Both of these mechanisms rely on shared secrets associated with the NAI, which architectjre stored in the home network, and both will be supported by the architectjre AAA infrastructure. However, these rates are not normally implemented because the resulting top rate of Home Mobile devices Mobile vpn.
Example of CDMA packet data architecture. Examples of CDMA data service protocol stacks. Dormancy The mobile device is expected to support airlink “dormancy” as defined by TIA [ISA1]which allows either the mobile or the MSC to time out the cdmqone airlink connection after a period of inactivity and to release the air interface and serving base station resources.
Mobile Station Types There are two basic types of mobile station configurations—relay model and network model. How This Book Is Organized. Who Should Read This Book. The Era of Achitecture Mobility. Quality of Service and VPN. Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting. A Radio Interface Perspective. Moving from Wireline to Wireless and Mobile.
HA Allocation in the Network. The Future of Mobile Services. The Future of Wireless Service and Systems. Mobile Virtual Network Operator.