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Editors. Guido Adler (); Selmar Bagge (); Ferdinand David ( ); Franz Espagne (); Eusebius Mandyczewski. Beethoven Werkverzeichnis (Thematic-Bibliographical Catalogue of Works). 2 Hardcover Volumes. Series: Henle Complete Edition. Publisher: G. Henle Verlag. Mai Hess 1, Original ending of the first movement of the Eighth Symphony, [Op. 93], Hess 2, Twelve Minuets, composed in

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A crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras in classical musiche remains one of the most recognised and influential of all composers. His best-known compositions include 9 symphonies ; 5 piano concertos ; 1 violin concerto ; 32 piano sonatas ; 16 string quartets ; a massthe Missa solemnis ; and an operaFidelio.

His career as a composer is conventionally divided into early, middle, and late periods; the “early” period is typically seen to last untilthe “middle” period from toand the “late” period from to his death in He displayed his musical talents at an early age and was taught by his father Johann van Beethoven and composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe. At the wefkverzeichnis of 21 he moved to Viennawhere he began studying composition with Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as wrekverzeichnis virtuoso pianist.

He lived in Vienna until his death. By his late 20s his hearing began to deteriorate and by the last decade of his life he was almost completely deaf. In he gave up conducting and performing in public but continued to compose; many of his most admired works come from these last 15 years of his life, commonly known as his “late” period. Beethoven was the grandson of Ludwig van Beethoven —a musician beethogen the town of Mechelen in the Duchy of Brabant in the Flemish region of what is now Belgium, who at the age of 21 moved to Bonn.

The portrait he commissioned of himself towards the end of his life remained displayed in his grandson’s rooms as a talisman of his musical derkverzeichnis. Beethoven was born of this marriage in Bonn. There is no authentic record of the date of his birth; however, the registry of his baptism, in a Catholic service at the Parish of St. Beethoven’s first music teacher was his father.

He later had other local teachers: Johann, aware of Leopold Werkverzeochnis ‘s successes in this area with his beethven Wolfgang and daughter Nannerlattempted to promote his son as a child prodigyclaiming that Beethoven was six he was seven on the posters for his first public performance in March Some time afterhe began his studies with his most important teacher in Bonn, Werkkverzeichnis Gottlob Neefewho was appointed beethovsn Court’s Organist in that year.

Maximilian Frederick noticed his talent early, and subsidised and encouraged the young man’s musical studies. Echoing changes made in Vienna by his brother Josephhe introduced reforms based on Enlightenment philosophywith increased support for education and the arts. The beethovwn Beethoven was almost certainly influenced by these changes.

He may also have been influenced at this time by ideas prominent in freemasonryas Neefe and others around Beethoven were members of the local chapter of the Order of the Illuminati. In WerkverseichnisBeethoven travelled to Vienna, at his employer’s expense, for the first time, apparently in the hope of studying with Mozart.

His mother died shortly thereafter, and his father lapsed deeper into alcoholism. As a result, he became responsible for the care of his two younger brothers, and spent the next five years in Bonn. He was introduced in these years to several people who became important in his life. Franz Wegeler, a young medical student, introduced him to the von Breuning family one of whose daughters Wegeler eventually married.

He often visited the von Breuning household, where he taught piano to some of the children. Here he encountered German and classical literature. The von Breuning family environment was less stressful than his own, which was increasingly dominated by his father’s decline.

In Beethoven obtained a legal order by which werlverzeichnis of his father’s salary was paid directly to him for support of the family. This familiarised him with a variety of operas, including three by Mozart that were performed at court in this period. He also befriended Anton Reichaa flautist and violinist of about his own age who was a nephew of the court orchestra’s conductor, Josef Reicha.


From tohe composed a significant number of works none were published at the time, and most are now listed as “WoO”, works without opus number that demonstrated his growing range and maturity. Musicologists have identified a theme similar to those of his Third Symphony in a set of variations written in The two Emperor Cantatas WoO 87, WoO 88 he scored were never performed at the time and beethooven remained lost until the werkvrzeichnis.

But they were, according to Brahmsdistinctively “Beethoven through and through” and as such prophetic of the tragic style which would mark his music as distinct from the classical tradition. He was probably werkverzeichmis introduced to Joseph Haydn in latewhen the latter was travelling to London and stopped in Bonn around Christmas time.

With the Elector’s help, he left Bonn for Vienna in Novemberamid rumours of werkkverzeichnis spilling out of France ; he learned shortly after his arrival that his father had died. Count Waldstein, in his farewell note to Beethoven, wrote: He did not immediately set out to establish himself as a composer, but rather devoted himself to wrekverzeichnis and performance. Werkverzecihnis under Haydn’s direction, [30] he sought to master counterpoint. He also studied violin under Ignaz Schuppanzigh.

He chose instead to remain in Werkverzeochnis, continuing his instruction in counterpoint with Johann Albrechtsberger and other teachers. Although his stipend werkerzeichnis the Elector expired, a number of Viennese noblemen had veethoven recognised his ability and offered him financial support, among them Prince Joseph Franz LobkowitzPrince Karl Lichnowskyand Baron Gottfried van Swieten. Byhe had established a reputation as an improviser in the salons of the nobility, often playing the preludes and fugues of J.

Bach ‘s Well-Tempered Clavier.

It is uncertain whether this was the First or Second. Documentary evidence is unclear, and both concertos were in a similar state of near-completion neither was completed or wekverzeichnis for several years.

List of compositions by Ludwig van Beethoven

These works were dedicated to his patron Prince Lichnowsky, [36] and were a financial success; Beethoven’s profits were nearly sufficient to cover his living expenses for a year. Beethoven composed his first six string quartets Op. They were published in With premieres of his First and Second Symphonies in andhe became regarded as one of the most important of a generation of qerkverzeichnis composers following Haydn and Mozart. The concert, which the Allgemeine musikalische Beeghoven described as “the most interesting concert in a long time,” was not without difficulties; among the criticisms was that “the players did not bother to pay any attention to the soloist.

Ludwig van Beethoven – Wikipedia

Mozart and Haydn were undeniable influences. For example, Beethoven’s quintet for piano and winds is said to bear a strong resemblance to Mozart’s work for the same configurationalbeit with his own distinctive touches. During this time, he fell in love with the younger daughter Josephine [44] who has therefore been identified as one of the more likely candidates for the addressee of his letter to the ” Immortal Beloved ” in werkverzeuchnis Shortly after these lessons, Josephine was married to Count Josef Deym.

Beethoven was a regular visitor at their house, continuing to teach Weekverzeichnis, and playing at parties and concerts. Her marriage was by all accounts happy despite initial financial problems[45] and the couple had four children. Her relationship with Beethoven intensified after Deym died suddenly in He also had a few other students. From tohe tutored Ferdinand Rieswho went on to become a composer and later wrote Beethoven remembereda book about their encounters.

The young Carl Czerny studied with Beethoven from to Czerny went on to become a renowned music teacher himself, instructing Franz Lisztand on 11 February gave the Vienna premiere of Beethoven’s fifth piano concerto the “Emperor”. His compositions between and were dominated by two large-scale orchestral works, although he continued to produce other important works such werkverzeichnie the piano sonata Sonata quasi una fantasia known as the “Moonlight Sonata”.

In the spring of he completed The Creatures of Prometheusa ballet. The work received numerous werlverzeichnis in andand he rushed to publish a piano arrangement to capitalise on its early popularity. The symphony received its premiere instead at a subscription concert in April at the Theater an der Wienwhere he had been appointed composer in residence.

Reviews were mixed, but the concert was a financial success; he was able to charge three times the cost of a typical concert ticket.

His business dealings with publishers also began to improve in when his brother Kaspar, who had previously assisted him casually, began to assume a larger role in the management of his affairs.


In addition to negotiating higher prices for recently composed works, Kaspar also began selling some of his earlier unpublished compositions, and encouraged him against Beethoven’s preference to also make arrangements and transcriptions of his more popular works for other instrument combinations.

Beethoven acceded to these requests, as he could not prevent publishers from hiring others to do similar arrangements of his works.

Beethoven is reported to have dated his hearing loss from a fit he suffered in induced by a rage at the interruption of his work—having fallen over, he got up to find himself deaf. His hearing only ever partially recovered and, during its gradual decline, was impeded by a severe form of tinnitus.

The cause of his deafness is unknown, but has variously been attributed to typhusauto-immune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosusand derkverzeichnis his habit of immersing werkverzeichnie head in cold water to stay awake. On the advice of his doctor, he lived in the small Austrian town of Heiligenstadtjust outside Vienna, from April to October in an attempt to come to terms with his condition.

There he wrote his Heiligenstadt Testament wdrkverzeichnis, a letter to his brothers which records his thoughts of suicide due to his growing deafness and records his resolution to continue living for and through his art. His hearing loss did not prevent him from composing music, but it made playing at concerts—a lucrative source of income—increasingly difficult. After a failed attempt in to perform his own Piano Concerto No.

A large collection of his hearing aids, such as a special ear horncan be viewed at the Beethoven Werkverzeicjnis Museum in Bonn, Germany.

Despite his obvious distress, Czerny remarked that Beethoven could still hear speech and music normally until As a result of Beethoven’s hearing loss, his conversation books are an unusually rich written resource.

Used primarily in the last ten or so years of his life, his friends wrote in these books so that he could know what they were saying, and he then responded either orally or in the book.

The books contain discussions about music and other matters, and give insights into his thinking; they are a source for investigations into how he intended his music should be performed, and also his perception of his relationship to art.

Out of a total of conversation books, it werkvetzeichnis been suggested [ by whom?

SearchWorks Catalog

ewrkverzeichnis While Beethoven earned income from publication of his works and from public performances, he also depended on the generosity of patrons for income, for whom he gave private performances and copies of works they commissioned for an exclusive period prior to their publication. Some of his early patrons, including Prince Lobkowitz and Prince Lichnowsky, gave him annual stipends in addition to commissioning works and purchasing published works.

Perhaps his most important aristocratic patron was Archduke Rudolphthe youngest son of Emperor Leopold IIwho in or began to study piano and composition with him.

The cleric Cardinal-Priest and the composer became friends, and their meetings continued until Rudolph, in turn, dedicated one of werkverzeichniz own compositions to Beethoven. The letters Beethoven wrote to Rudolph are today kept at the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna.

To persuade him to stay in Vienna, the Archduke Rudolph, Prince Kinsky and Prince Lobkowitz, after receiving representations from the composer’s friends, pledged to pay him a pension of florins a year.

Only Archduke Rudolph paid his share of the pension on the agreed werkverzelchnis. Lobkowitz stopped paying in September No successors came forward to continue the patronage, and Beethoven relied mostly on selling composition rights and a small pension after The effects of these financial arrangements were undermined to some extent by war with Francewhich wsrkverzeichnis significant inflation when the government printed money to fund its war efforts.

Beethoven’s middle period spanned from through His return to Vienna from Heiligenstadt was marked by a change in musical style, and is qerkverzeichnis designated as the start of his middle or “heroic” period. From now on I intend to take a new way. This work was longer and larger in scope than any previous symphony.