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AGAMA ZOROASTER PDF

Purdawud (seorang tokoh agama Zoroaster) menilai ajaran Sa’di sebagai ajaran yang salah. Mengapa? Karena Sa’di berpendapat bahwa berbohong lebih. Sep 24, Kepercayaan Yazidi pada dasarnya berakar dari agama Zoroaster yang lahir di Mesopotamia sekitar empat ribu tahun yang lalu. Akan tetapi. Get this from a library! Ramalan tentang Muhammad SAW: dalam kitab suci agama Zoroaster, Hindu, Buddha, dan Kristen. [A H Vidyarthi; ʻAbd al-Aḥad.

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His teachings challenged the zoroasted traditions of the Indo-Iranian religion and later developed into the religion of Mazdayasna or Zoroastrianism. He inaugurated a movement that eventually became the dominant religion in Ancient Iran. He was a native speaker of Old Avestan and lived in the eastern part of the Iranian Plateaubut his exact birthplace is uncertain. There is no scholarly consensus on when he lived. This is done by agam the period in which the Old Avestan language as well as the earlier Proto-Indo-Iranian and Proto-Iranian languages and the related Vedic Sanskrit were spoken, the period in which the Proto-Indo-Iranian religion was practiced, and correlation between the burial practice described in the Gathas with the archeological Yaz culture.

Most of his life is zorosster from these texts. There is no consensus on the dating of Zoroaster, the Avesta gives no direct information about it, while historical sources are conflicting.

Some scholars base their date reconstruction on the Proto-Indo-Iranian language and Proto-Indo-Iranian religion[16] and thus it is considered to have been some place in northeastern Iran and some time between and BCE. Both texts are considered to have a common archaic Indo-Iranian origin. The Gathas portray an ancient Stone – Bronze Age bipartite society of warrior-herdsmen and priests compared to Bronze tripartite society ; some conjecture that it depicts the Yaz culture [29]and thus it is implausible that the Gathas and Rigveda could have been composed more than a few centuries apart.

These scholars suggest that Zoroaster lived in an isolated tribe or composed the Gathas before the — BCE migration by the Iranians from the steppe to the Iranian Plateau. Other scholars [13] propose a period between 7th and 6th century, for example, c. This date gains credence mainly on the thesis that certain figures must be based on historical facts, [3] thus some have related the mythical Vishtaspa with Darius I’s father Vishtaspa or Hystaspes in Greek with the account on Zoroaster’s life.

However, in the Avesta it should not be ignored that Vishtaspa’s son became the ruler of the Persian Empire, Darius I would not neglect to include his patron-father in the Behistun Inscription. A different proposed conclusion is that Darius I’s father was named in honor of the Zoroastrian patron, indicating possible Zoroastrian faith by Arsames. Classical scholarship in the 6th to 4th century BCE believed he existed six thousand years before Xerxes I invasion of Greece in BCE XanthusEudoxusAristotleHermippuswhich is a possible misunderstanding of the Zoroastrian four cycles of years i.

Some later pseudo-historical and Zoroastrian sources the Bundahishnwhich references a date ” years before Alexander” place Zoroaster in the 6th century BCE, [d] [40] which coincided with the accounts by Ammianus Marcellinus from 4th century CE.

This did not appeal to the Zoroastrian priesthood who then attempted to establish an “Age of Zoroaster”. To do so, they needed to establish when Zoroaster had lived, which they accomplished by erroneous, some even identified Cyrus with Vishtaspa [41] counting back the length of successive generations, until they concluded that Zoroaster must have lived ” years before Alexander”.

The birthplace of Zoroaster is also unknown, and the language of the Gathas is not similar to the proposed north-western and north-eastern regional dialects of Persia. It is also suggested that he was born in one of the two areas and later lived in the other area. The Vendidad contain seventeen regional names, most of which are located in north-eastern and eastern Iran. However, in Yasna However, in Avestan, Ragha is simply a toponym meaning “plain, hillside.

Apart from these indications in Middle Persian sources that are open to interpretations, there are a number of other sources.

The Greek and Latin sources are divided on the birthplace of Zarathustra. Coming from a reputed scholar of religions, this was a serious blow for the various regions who all claimed that Zoroaster originated from their homelands, some of which then decided that Zoroaster must then have then been buried in their regions or composed his Gathas there or preached there.

By the late 20th century, most scholars had ayama on an origin in eastern Greater Iran. Gnoli proposed SistanBaluchistan though in a much wider scope than the present-day province as the homeland of Zoroastrianism; Frye voted for Bactria and Chorasmia ; [48] Khlopin suggests the Tedzen Delta in present-day Ziroaster.

The Encyclopedia Iranica article on the history of Zoroastrianism summarizes the zoroaater with “while there is general agreement that he did not live in western Iran, attempts to locate him in specific regions of eastern Iran, including Central Asia, remain tentative”.

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All the names appear appropriate of the nomadic tradition, as his father’s means “possessing gray horses” with the word zotoaster meaning horsewhile his mother’s is “milkmaid”. According to the tradition, he had four brothers, two older and two younger, whose names are given in much later Pahlavi work. His training for the priesthood probably started very early, around seven years of age. Zoroaster soon became aware of the existence of two primal Spirits, the second being Angra Mainyu Hostile Spiritwith opposing concepts of Asha truth and Druj lie.

Thus he decided to spend his zorroaster teaching people to seek Asha. He taught about free will[59] and opposed the use of the hallucinogenic Haoma plant in rituals, polytheismagmaa religious ceremonies and animal sacrifices, as well an oppressive class system in Persia which earned him strong opposition among local authorities. According to the tradition, he lived for many years after the Vishtaspa conversion, managed zgama establish a faithful community, [63] and married three times.

His first two wives bore him three sons and three daughters. For humankind, this occurs through active participation in life and the exercise of constructive thoughts, words and deeds. Elements of Zoroastrian philosophy entered the West through their influence on Judaism and Middle Platonism and have been identified as one of the ahama early events in the development of philosophy.

Inthe Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy ranked Zarathustra as first in the chronology of philosophers.

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The encyclopedia Natural History Pliny claims that Zoroastrians later educated the Greeks who, starting with Pythagorasused a similar term, philosophy, or “love of wisdom” to describe the search for ultimate truth. Zoroaster emphasized the freedom of the individual to choose right or wrong and individual responsibility for one’s deeds. For Zarathustra, by thinking good thoughts, saying good words, and doing good deeds e.

Thus, we are not the slaves or servants of Ahura Mazda, but we can make a personal choice to be his co-workers, thereby refreshing the world and ourselves. A number of parallels have been drawn between Zoroastrian teachings and Islam. Such parallels include the evident similarities between Amesha Spenta and the archangel Gabrieland the mention of Thamud and the Iram of the Pillars in the Quran. These may also indicate the vast influence of the Achaemenid Empire on the development of either religion.

The Sabaeanswho believed in free will coincident with Zoroastrians, are also mentioned in the Quran. Like the Greeks of classical antiquity, Islamic tradition understands Zoroaster to be the founding prophet of the Magians via Aramaic, Arabic Majuscollective Majusya. The 11th-century Cordoban Ibn Qgama Zahiri school contends that Kitabi “of the Book” cannot apply in light of the Zoroastrian assertion that their books were destroyed by Alexander. Citing the authority of the 8th-century al-Kalbithe 9th- and 10th-century Sunni historian al-Tabari i.

According to this tale, Zaradusht defrauded his master, who cursed him, causing him to become leprous cf. Elisha ‘s servant Gehazi in Jewish Scripture. The apostate Zaradusht then eventually made his way to Balkh present day Afghanistan where he converted Bishtasb i.

Vishtaspawho in turn compelled his subjects to adopt the zoroastsr of the Magians. Recalling other tradition, al-Tabari i. Upon their arrival, Zaradusht translated the sage’s Hebrew teachings for the king and so convinced him to convert Tabari also notes that they had previously been Sabi s to the Magian religion. The 12th-century heresiographer al-Shahrastani describes the Majusiya into three sects, the Kayumarthiyathe Zurwaniya and the Zaradushtiyaamong which Al-Shahrastani asserts that only the last of the three were properly followers of Zoroaster.

As regards the recognition of a prophet, Zoroaster has said: Thus they accorded the same treatment to the Zoroastrian people which they did to other “People of the Book”.

Though the name of Zoroaster is not mentioned in the Qur’an, still he was regarded as one of those prophets whose names have not been mentioned zoroastet the Qur’an, for there is a verse in the Qur’an: Accordingly, the Muslims treated the founder of Zoroastrianism as a true prophet and believed in his religion as they did in other inspired creeds, and thus according to the prophecy, protected the Zoroastrian religion.

James Darmesteter remarked in the translation of Zend Agaama During the reign of the seventh Abbasid caliph, Al-Ma’munImam Ali al-Ridhathe great grandson of Muhammad and a prominent Islamic scholar of his time, was summoned in court to debate with the high priests, scholars, philosophers, and theologians to test his knowledge on religion and jurisprudence.

Among the summoned scholars agaka a Zoroastrian High Priest. Tales had come to them about what the prophets had accomplished, what MosesJesus and Muhammad had all brought them, so why did you not believe in any of these prophets, having believed in Zoroaster, through the tales that came to you about him, informing that he zoroqster forth what others did not? Ahmadi Muslims view Zoroaster as a Prophet of God and describe the expressions of Ahura Mazda, the god of goodness, and Ahraman, the god of evil, as merely referring to the coexistence of forces of good and evil enabling humans to exercise free will.

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Manichaeism considered Zoroaster to be a figure along with Jesus and the Buddha in a line of prophets of which Mani — was the culmination. The Greeks—in the Hellenistic sense of the term—had an understanding of Zoroaster as atama by PlutarchDiogenes Laertiusand Agathias [82] that saw him, at the core, to be the “prophet and founder of the religion of the Iranian peoples,” Beck notes that “the rest was mostly fantasy”.

Deriving from that image, and reinforcing it, was a “mass of literature” attributed to aoroaster and that circulated the Mediterranean world from the 3rd century BCE to the end of antiquity and beyond. The language of that literature was predominantly Greekthough at one stage or another various parts of it passed through AramaicSyriacCoptic or Latin.

Its ethos and cultural matrix was likewise Hellenistic, and “the ascription of literature to sources beyond that zorozster, cultural and temporal framework represents a bid for authority and a fount of legitimizing “alien wisdom”. Zoroaster and the magi did not compose it, but their names sanctioned it.

Among the named works attributed to “Zoroaster” is a treatise On Nature Peri physeoswhich appears to have originally constituted four volumes i. The framework is a retelling of Plato’s Myth of Erwith Zoroaster taking the place of the original hero.

While Porphyry imagined Pythagoras listening to Zoroaster’s discourse, On Nature has the sun in middle position, which was how it was understood in the 3rd century. In contrast, Plato’s 4th-century BCE version had the sun in second place above the moon.

Ironically, Colotes accused Plato of plagiarizing Zoroaster, [88] [89] and Heraclides Ponticus wrote a text titled Zoroaster based on his perception of “Zoroastrian” philosophy, in order to express his disagreement with Plato on natural philosophy. Pliny the Elder names Zoroaster as the inventor of magic Natural History Association with astrology according to Roger Beck, were based on his Babylonian origin, and Zoroaster’s Greek name was identified at first with star-worshiping astrothytes “star sacrificer” and, with the Zo-even as the living star.

Zoroaster died by the living zo- flux ro- of fire from the star astr- which he himself had invoked, and even, that the stars killed him in revenge for having been restrained by him. Almost all Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha is now lost, and of the attested texts—with only one exception—only fragments have survived.

Pliny’s 2nd- or 3rd-century attribution of “two million lines” to Zoroaster suggest that even if exaggeration and duplicates are taken into consideration a formidable pseudepigraphic corpus once existed at the Library of Alexandria.

This corpus can safely be assumed to be pseudepigrapha because no one before Pliny refers to literature by “Zoroaster”, [99] and on zlroaster authority of the 2nd-century Galen of Pergamon and from a 6th-century commentator xoroaster Aristotle it is known that the acquisition policies of well-endowed royal libraries created a market for fabricating manuscripts of famous and ancient authors.

The exception to the fragmentary evidence i. A three-line cryptogram in the colophones following the page treatise identify the work as “words of truth of Zostrianos. God of Truth [ logos ]. Another work circulating zoroatser the name of “Zoroaster” was the Asteroskopita or Apotelesmatikaand which ran to five volumes i. The title and fragments suggest that it was an astrological handbook, “albeit a very varied one, for the making of predictions.

These pseudepigraphic texts aside, some authors did draw on a few genuinely Zoroastrian ideas. The Oracles of Hystaspesby ” Hystaspes “, another prominent magian pseudo-author, is a set of prophecies distinguished from other Zoroastrian pseudepigrapha in that it draws on real Zoroastrian sources.

He used to call the one Horomazes and the other Areimanius “. Zoroaster was known as a sage, magician, and miracle-worker in post-Classical Western culture. Enlightenment writers such zoroawter Voltaire promoted research into Zoroastrianism zoroater the belief that it was a form of rational Deismpreferable to Zoroxster.

An early 19th-century representation of Zoroaster derived from the portrait of a figure that appears in a 4th-century sculpture at Taq-e Bostan in south-western Iran.

Penindasan Zoroastrianisme – Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

In his seminal work Also sprach Zarathustra Thus Spoke Zarathustra the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche uses the native Iranian name Zarathustra which has a significant meaning [f] as he had used the familiar Greek-Latin name in his earlier works.

Irish poet William Butler Yeats — and his wife reportedly claimed to have contacted Zoroaster through ” automatic writing “. Although a few agam depictions of Zoroaster show the prophet performing some deed of legend, in general the portrayals merely present him in white vestments which are also worn by present-day Zoroastrian priests.