Standard Method of Test forDensity of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone Method AASHTO Designation: T 1. SCOP. AASHTO. 1). T – Density of Soil In-Place by the Sand-Cone. Method. 2). T – Correction for AASHTO T Section 4 and is summarized as follows: 1). Find the most up-to-date version of AASHTO T at Engineering
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This table shows the suggested minimum mass of the moisture content sample in relation to the maximum particle size in soil mixtures.
Each sand-cone and matched base plate will also have a set of unique cone corrections and bulk sand densities.
sand cone method t
Dig the test hole inside the opening of the base plate, being very careful to avoid disturbing the soil that will bound the hole. Other apparatus of similar proportions will perform equally well so long as the basic principles of the sand-volume determination are observed.
When the sand stops flowing into the apparatus, close the valve sharply and empty the excess sand Note 2. Miscellaneous Equipment—Small pick, chisels, or spoons for digging test hole; mm 10 in.
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Care must be taken to avoid moisture loss during excavation. Calculate the moisture content to the nearest 0. To be acceptable the sand shall not have a variation xashto bulk density greater than 1 percent.
Place the empty apparatus upright on a firm level surface, close the valve and fill the funnel with sand.
Sand Cone Density Apparatus, H
Calculate the dry mass of the material to the nearest aashtoo g 0. Open the valve and keep the funnel at least half full with sand during filling. Close the valve sharply, remove the apparatus and determine the remaining mass of the apparatus and sand m4. Determine and record the mass of the apparatus filled with sand m1 Determine the mass of sand required to fill the funnel and base plate Cone Correction.
Weigh the apparatus with the remaining sand m6 and record. Place the base plate on the calibration container Note 1. Determining the bulk density of sand DB to be used in the field test.
Seat the base plate on the prepared surface. Prepare the surface of the location to be tested so that t91 is a level plane. Balances—A balance conforming to the requirements of MClass G Calibration Container—A sturdy cylindrical container of known volume Vc. Place all loosened soil in a container, being careful to avoid losing any material. Subtract the final mass Step 4. Fill the apparatus with sand according aashfo Section 4. The results obtained using these or other rapid test methods must be corrected to the values obtained in accordance with T Divide the mass of the sand needed to fill the container Step 4.
Aasto the total mass m5. Determine the bulk density of the calibration sand sand calibration factor. Replace the sand removed in the funnel determination according to Section 4.
Calculate the mass of the sand needed to fill the container, funnel and base plate. Calculate the volume of the test hole to the nearest 1 cm3 0. Calculate the dry in-place dry density of the material removed from the test hole as follows: The base plate is required for calibrations and testing. Place the base plate on a clean, level, plane surface. The mass of the sand needed to fill the container only is determined by subtracting the mass of the cone correction Step 4.
Drying Equipment—Stove or oven or other suitable equipment for drying moisture content samples. Open the valve fully and keep open until the sand stops flowing Note 2. Note 1—The internal diameter of the container shall be equal to or slightly less than the diameter of the opening of the base plate used with the sand-cone.
The following applies to all specified limits in this standard: Position the calibration container on a clean, level, plane surface. The apparatus described herein is restricted to tests in soils containing particles not larger than 50 mm 2 in.
Density of soil, sand cone to AASHTO T191
Soils that are essentially granular require extreme care. Close the valve sharply, remove the apparatus and determine the mass of the apparatus and the remaining sand m2. Calculate the dry mass of the material removed from the test hole as follows: T 1. Open the valve fully, allow the sand to flow until the sand stops flowing Note 2.
The container shall be dimensionally approximate the largest test hold that will be dug. The minimum test hole volumes suggested in determining the in-place density of soil mixtures are given in Table 1. In selecting a sand for use, several bulk density determinations should be made using the same representative sample for each determination.
Note 2—Vibration of the sand during any mass-volume determination may increase the bulk density of the sand and decrease the accuracy of the determination. The valve shall have stops to prevent rotating the valve past the completely open or completely closed positions.
Invert the apparatus and seat the funnel in the recess of the base plate. After the sand has stopped flowing, close the valve Note 2.
Invert the sand-cone filled with sand and seat the funnel in the recess of the base plate. Weigh the moist material that was removed from the test hole.
This relationship can be determined by g191 the in-place density by the maximum density and multiplying by The apparatus shall conform to the requirements shown in Figure 1.